When Steven Wofsy began monitoring carbon dioxide uptake at the Harvard Forest in 1991, he expected to see it slowing down or leveling off entirely as the century-old forest reached maturity.But results from his measuring devices showed carbon dioxide uptake increasing rapidly. This not only surprised Wofsy, it also raised the prospect that forests were buffering human-caused climate change more than scientists understood, suggesting a significant gap in our knowledge of how forests function.Wofsy, the Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Science at Harvard, and Andrew Richardson, assistant professor of organismic and evolutionary biology, spoke about their research into forests and climate change Wednesday at the Harvard Museum of Natural History (HMNH). The talk, introduced and moderated by HMNH Interim Director David Ellis, was part of the museum’s lecture series on New England forests.Trees are an important player in climate change because they consume the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and lock it up for years in their woody tissue.Overall, the world’s forests are enormous carbon warehouses, Richardson said. They cover a third of the Earth’s land surface and their inhalations and exhalations are so large, they can be recorded on scientific measurements of global atmospheric carbon dioxide.Forests store about 100 billion more tons of carbon than is present in the atmosphere, about 850 billion tons’ worth, tucked away in wood, leaves, roots, and litter on the forest floor. That storage capacity is growing. Forests globally remove about 2.4 billion tons of carbon from the atmosphere each year. That is partially offset by deforestation, which releases 1.3 billion tons annually, resulting in a net uptake of about a billion tons a year.When compared with the amount released by human fossil fuel burning — about 8 billion tons a year — Richardson and Wofsy agreed that reducing deforestation could slow the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but by itself won’t solve the problem for humankind.“If we didn’t have forests to help us out, we’d be in a much worse situation,” Richardson said.Harvard Forest is fairly typical of New England’s regenerated woodlands in age and make-up—a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees whose large size combined with the forest’s closed canopy give the appearance of a mature forest.The measurements show otherwise, however. Wofsy’s instruments show that the forest is not only continuing to grow and take up carbon dioxide, but that the uptake is accelerating. Initial measurements in 1991 showed that each hectare of forest took up about 2 tons a year. Even that amount seemed high to researchers for a forest whose growth should have been slowing as it matured, Wofsy said.They thought they’d see a definite decline as the decades wore on, but the opposite happened. Through the 1990s and 2000s, carbon uptake continued to increase rapidly, reaching as high as 5 tons per hectare a year.“We figured it would decline with time,” Wofsy said. “Then it doubled.”Researchers had to face the fact that they really don’t know as much about the region’s forests as they thought they did. Instead of being a mature forest, it appears that the Harvard Forest and, by extension, many of the forests across New England, are middle aged and still growing. Carbon can continue to be stored as trees grow larger and litter accumulates on the forest floor. Even fallen trees can continue to store carbon, releasing it slowly as they decompose. Measurements of Harvard Forest’s trees, Wofsy said, show that oaks in particular are continuing to grow, increasing in girth rather than height.The growth may also result from climate change, Wofsy and Richardson said. Because trees and other plants take in carbon dioxide, it is possible that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are acting to “fertilize” the forest, inducing it to grow more than it might otherwise. Though this effect is possible, Wofsy said it is difficult to isolate and document.That’s not the case with temperatures, however. Records show that the average annual temperature at Harvard Forest increased 1.5 degrees Celsius between 1964 and 2010, and both Wofsy and Richardson said there’s considerable evidence that warmer temperatures are extending the growing season.Richardson, who has established a network of cameras across the country to monitor forests’ annual cycles, said that trees are pushing out leaves earlier in the spring and dropping them later in the fall. By his count, Harvard Forest’s annual growing season has increased by about two weeks, beginning a week earlier and ending a week later.Wofsy measures the growing season a bit differently and his numbers show an even more dramatic change. By recording the forest’s daily intake and release of carbon dioxide, he can pinpoint the day each spring when new growth causes the forest to absorb more carbon dioxide than it releases and the day in the fall when the opposite happens as the forest shuts down for the winter. By that measure, Wofsy said, the growing season has increased not two weeks, but 50 days over the past 20 years, from 130 days in 1991 to 180 days today.“How big can Harvard Forest get? It turns out nobody actually knows the answer to that question,” Wofsy said.
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Liverpool boss Klopp prepared to be dumped from Carabao Cupby Paul Vegas24 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool are still waiting to learn of their Carabao Cup status.The Daily Mail says Liverpool have yet to receive any indication from the EFL when they will discover their fate after fielding an ineligible player in the Carabao Cup win over MK Dons. The strongest sanction is expulsion from the competition – manager Jurgen Klopp says Liverpool must accept whatever punishment is given.”If it was our fault,” said Klopp, “we need to get punished.”
Vine/Dan LyonsOklahoma’s Buddy Hield is this year’s Big 12 Player of the Year, and for good reason. The junior shooting guard does everything for the Sooners, and in tonight’s Round of 32 game against Dayton, that includes making a crucial block on a fast break lay-up attempt that could have cut the Oklahoma lead to two points. Dayton guard Darrell Davis stole the ball from OU’s Jordan Woodard, and immediately took off for the hoop. As he released the ball, Hield made a fantastic play to reject the shot out of his hand. Instead of a two-point game, Oklahoma was fouled and extended the lead.Oklahoma finished the game with a 72-66 win, and will face Michigan State in the Sweet 16 at the Carrier Dome in Syracuse, NY.
Trina Roache APTN National NewsMILLBROOK FIRST NATION, NS — A Mi’kmaw woman is fishing again after Canada’s Human Rights Tribunal found her band discriminated against her.But a happy ending for Stacy Lee Marshall Tabor is still up in the air. At the same time the Millbrook band in Nova Scotia hired her as a deckhand, it asked the Federal Court to reverse the tribunal’s decision.Stacy Lee Marshall TaborJust the same, Tabor is relieved to finally be out on the water again after eight years.“I was so overwhelmed,” said Tabor. “The ‘I won’ factor, I did it. I’m here, missing my kids, scared at the same time, like, what do these guys on the boat think of me? I took some deep breaths and got back into the wheelhouse.”Tabor said she was denied work in the Millbrook First Nation Fishery because she’s a woman.Last May, the tribunal agreed. It found Tabor’s situation reflects a larger discriminatory attitude towards “the place of women in the community, namely that they should stay home with their kids.”At the beginning of July, Tabor headed out to fish snow crab.“All she had to do was apply,” said Millbrook band manager Alex Cope. “She never really did that before. When she did, she got the job.”Tabor agreed that in recent years she had given up and not applied. She added that back when she was trying to get work on a boat, there was no formal hiring process.Prior to 2007, Tabor did work at various times as a deckhand and First Mate. She was a qualified captain, but was denied job opportunities and advancement in the fishery. The tribunal found the band ignored or downplayed Tabor’s experience and pointed to systemic sex discrimination as the cause.The band has asked the Federal Court of Appeal to review the decision.No one at the Millbrook band would comment, instead that to its lawyer.“The tribunal simply got it wrong,” said Gavin Giles, a lawyer for the Millbrook Band. “It overstated the importance of some evidence and largely ignored other evidence.”“We say Ms. Tabor was not discriminated against,” said Giles. “And that the band didn’t systemically discriminate against women with respect to employment opportunities.”Giles said the band wants the decision either overturned or a new hearing altogether.Read original story on Stacy Lee Marshall Tabor here: Mi’kmaw woman wins sex discrimination case against Nova Scotia bandTabor is not surprised. “They’ve been fighting me tooth and nail for the last several years, this is their last chance.”There is still another decision expected soon from the tribunal on whether the band retaliated against Tabor because of her human rights complaint.In addition, the band has yet to come to the table to negotiate damages over Tabor’s loss of employment. Giles said that process may be put aside until the federal court hears the appeal. He expects a date to be set in the fall.Tabor wants the band to pay for her retraining. Her Captain’s licence has expired. For now, she wants to work.“Just hoping I can feed my family,” said Tabor. “They want bikes, school clothes, put some money away for Christmas. I don’t want to struggle like I have over the years. When I do get my cheque, I just want to be able to buy my kids the things that they’ve been wanting for so many years.”[email protected]
Ohio State junior forward Jae’Sean Tate converts a layup as he was fouled in the first half against Wisconsin on Feb. 23 at the Schottenstein Center. OSU won 83-73. Credit: Colin Hass-Hill | Assistant Sports DirectorThe will or drive of a team is rooted in self belief. Without a belief or a vision, a team cannot achieve its goals.For a while, the Ohio State men’s basketball team didn’t have a vision, it didn’t have a moment that could spring a successful run as the season grows nye. Well, now OSU has both.The Buckeyes handily defeated the 16th-ranked Wisconsin Badgers at home Thursday night, 83-73, in their most complete game this season. Four players were in double figures, the bench scored 32 points and as a team, OSU outrebounded the Badgers by 13 and shot 63 percent (10-for-16) from 3-point range.All of that happened against the fourth best defense in the country.The players — sophomore guard C.J. Jackson in particular, who had a career-high 18 points Thursday — had been saying throughout a mentally taxing conference season that they believed there run of consecutive wins was just around the corner. Wisconsin might be the start of that, but that doesn’t necessarily mean OSU’s predicament has changed. The Buckeyes will likely still need to win the Big Ten tournament to make the NCAA Tournament, but at the very least, OSU finally has proof it can win games against top competition.“I feel like everybody was on the same page (on Thursday). We played hard. It seemed like we couldn’t miss,” junior forward Jae’Sean Tate said. “If we play like this the rest of the time and in the Big Ten tournament, I feel like we can win.”That type of language hadn’t been heard since the beginning of the season when winning the conference was seen as an attainable goal. Yes, the Buckeyes said things like, “There’s still a long way to go,” and “Anything can happen” after losses, but maybe what OSU needed was the reality of winning a game that many didn’t believe it had a prayer in.So it begs the question, why can’t OSU always play like this?“I wish we could (always play like this) and for now on I hope we can,” Tate said. “We just got to build from it.”The game was equally important for OSU coach Thad Matta, who has been dealt an unprecedented amount of criticism this year. The 13-year OSU coach was already the most winningest coach in school history and became the most tenured coach in school history on Thursday night.He has not been one to ever focus, or truly care, about what outsiders say, but there’s no denying that critics will think twice about scolding the 13-year OSU coach after the Wisconsin win.“I’m sure there’s a lot of people that wouldn’t be pissed off if I didn’t come back (tomorrow),” Matta said. “But I say that from a standpoint of I guess that’s a tremendous feat, but I kind of like the most wins more than the most games to be honest with you.”While nothing on the winning side has come naturally to the Buckeyes this season, they had the answers on Thursday night. Each answer paved the path to success. There remains a long way to go for them, but the Buckeyes saw what their best looks like and that could be a motivator with two games remaining before the conference tournament.“We haven’t seen it a whole lot,” Matta said. “Everybody sort of did there part. When you’re making shots, it probably helps your cause … I hope these guys got a good taste of what it feels like to win a game.”
1. What is the state of the Minnesota football program? It’s rare for college football coaches to be fired mid-season. But Minnesota bucked that trend earlier this month. On Oct. 17, Minnesota fired coach Tim Brewster after the Golden Gophers’ 1-6 start. In a little more than three-and-a-half seasons as coach, Brewster went 15-30, including 6-21 in the Big Ten. Offensive coordinator Jeff Horton is now interim head coach. 2. Does Adam Weber pose problems for a banged-up Buckeye secondary? Last week, Weber joined the company of former Big Ten greats in the 10,000 career-passing-yards club. In recent weeks, the Golden Gophers have been throwing the ball extensively. Weber has averaged 47 passing attempts in the last two games. In three career games against Ohio State, Weber has averaged 177 passing yards a game while throwing two touchdowns and four interceptions. Despite those average numbers, OSU coach Jim Tressel holds Weber in high regard. “We had him in youth camp. I thought he was outstanding then, and 10,000 yards later I think he’s still outstanding,” Tressel said. “He’s a competitor.” 3. Has Ross Homan’s injury opened the door for the next star Buckeye linebacker? Remember back in 2005 when senior standout linebacker Bobby Carpenter broke his leg against Michigan and true freshman James Laurinaitis stepped in for him and didn’t miss a beat? Andrew Sweat is delivering a repeat performance in 2010 while Ross Homan is mending a foot injury. In the last two games, Sweat had 16 tackles, two tackles for loss, an interception, a forced fumble and a pass break-up. 4. Is Terrelle Pryor out of the Heisman race? The smart money says that with Auburn’s Cam Newton and Oregon’s LaMichael James putting up impressive numbers week after week, along with Boise State’s Kellen Moore’s sustained excellence throughout the season, Pryor’s Heisman campaign might be postponed until 2011. Although he’s not completely out of the race yet (Pryor ranks in the top 12 in the nation in touchdown passes and quarterback rating), he will need monster efforts in each of the final four regular season games to put himself back into the discussion. 5. After struggling at Illinois and losing at Wisconsin, will OSU’s road struggles continue against Minnesota? The Golden Gophers are hardly intimidating at 1-7 overall and 0-4 in the Big Ten. They are 7-42 in program history against OSU, their worst record against any Big Ten opponent. But consider this: No current Buckeye has played at TCF Bank Stadium, which opened Sept. 12, 2009. OSU always gets every Big Ten opponent’s best shot and the Golden Gophers will be amped to play under the lights Saturday night. Tressel said he hasn’t been disappointed by his team’s play on the road so far, but agreed that his squad’s two previous performances away from Ohio Stadium have left room for improvement. “I haven’t looked at our two trips and said, ‘I don’t think they were focused’ or ‘I don’t think they understood’ or ‘they let the crowd get to them,’” Tressel said. “But do we need to play better on the road? Absolutely.”
Junior outfielder Pat Porter (3) slides into home during a game against Toledo April 3 at Bill Davis Stadium. OSU won, 7-2.Credit: Elliot Schall / Lantern photographerIf the Ohio State baseball team wants to be considered as one of the best teams in the Big Ten, making a statement in its first conference road series will go a long way.After getting swept in a three-game series at home by Indiana last weekend, the Buckeyes (18-10, 2-3) have a season-defining series this weekend at Nebraska (16-13, 1-2). OSU cruised in two midweek games against Ohio and Toledo that resulted in 31 hits for the Buckeyes, and coach Greg Beals said after feeling the pressure last weekend, the team has to step up against another one of the Big Ten’s top teams.“They were picked to be second in our conference preseason, so we’ve got to go defend ourselves. We didn’t have a good conference weekend last weekend and we can’t afford to have two bad weekends in a row in conference,” Beals said.Junior catcher Connor Sabanosh said the team realizes how important this weekend is if it wants to make a run at winning the Big Ten.“It’s going to be a big series for us after the tough three losses against Indiana,” Sabanosh said. “We’re really looking forward to our hitting to continue, these last two games have been big for us pounding out some hits and some runs. So we’re looking forward to keep it going through the weekend.”Pitching is key for OSU — the team is 13-0 when leading after seven innings and 17-2 when limiting opponents to five runs. Freshman pitcher Zach Farmer said heading into another Big Ten series, the pitchers have to build on the momentum they gained this week.“We’re on a roll right now and we just have to keep it going,” Farmer said.Against Indiana, pitchers were trying too hard and not sticking to the game plan, Sabanosh said.“Last weekend I thought they left a few too many balls over the middle of the plate. We have our best success working down on the corners,” Sabanosh said. “I think if they can stick with their game plan working down on the zone, we’ll be pretty effective out there.”In his first year at OSU after playing two years at a junior college, Sabanosh said he is excited to see what the Big Ten games look like on the road.“I’m hoping for a big one. It’s been fun on the road,” Sabanosh said. “We’ve been fortunate. The Oregon series was a lot of fun, great energy in the crowd. I’m really looking forward to the Nebraska series and I’m expecting a big crowd.”Beals said he expects the series to be exciting.“It’s a very good college baseball atmosphere there,” Beals said. “We’re going to have a good challenge here. We’re going on the road to play a good team.”First pitch in Lincoln is scheduled for 7:35 p.m. Friday.
New Italy manager Roberto Mancini has announced that he plans to talk with Mario Balotelli over a potential comeback to the national teamThe Italian coach managed Balotelli at both Inter Milan and Manchester City, before Mancini sanctioned his move to AC Milan in 2013 due to the forward’s poor disciplinary record at the Premier League side.The last time Balotelli played for Italy was in the 2014 World Cup after his struggles with both Liverpool and Milan (in what was his second spell in 2015) meant he was left out by Antonio Conte and then later Gian Piero Ventura.However, the 27-year-old has rediscovered his best form at Nice in his two seasons in France and has scored 43 goals in his 65 appearances in all competitions for the Ligue 1 side since joining in August 2016 as a free agent.Corini tells Balotelli to “raise his game” Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 According to the Brescia coach, Mario Balotelli “needs to raise his game if he wants to face Juventus” as his team is set to host Bologna.After Italy’s failure to qualify for the World Cup for the first time since 1958, there have been calls by the media to reinstate Balotelli to the national side and Mancini has now confirmed that he intends to speak with him.“Mario is an Italian player. We will definitely talk. He is one of those players we should take a new look at,” said the 53-year-old, according to Sky Sports.Mancini will take charge of his first game for Italy on May 28 against Saudi Arabia in an international friendly.
The future of Bordeaux forward Malcom has been handed another thrilling twist with Barcelona having now hi-jacked AS Roma’s move for him by making a late bid of their own, claims Gianluca Di MarzioOn Monday evening, it had been announced by Bordeaux that an agreement had been reached in principle with Roma over the sale of their forward Malcom for a transfer fee of €36m.The Brazilian was expected to arrive at the Italian capital for his medical earlier this week before surprisingly electing to remain in France, despite the fact that Roma supporters had even shown up at the airport to greet him on his arrival.And now it has been revealed that Malcom was advised to remain in France by his representatives after Bordeaux received a superior offer for him by Barcelona.Quiz: How much do you know about David Villa? Boro Tanchev – September 14, 2019 Time to test your knowledge about Spanish legendary forward David Villa.After having a third bid rejected for Chelsea winger Willian on Monday, Barcelona have now given up on signing him and have now set their sights on his compatriot.But Roma are determined to sign the Malcom and will even offer Bordeaux an improved deal for the 21-year-old to fend off interest from the Catalan giants.Malcom scored 12 goals and made seven assists in 35 league appearances for Bordeaux last season
Tottenham midfielder Mousa Dembele is set to join Chinese club Guangzhou R&F as he will be travelling to Hong Kong to undergo a medical.Skysports reports Spurs have been receiving several offers from China as Super League side Beijing Sinobo Guoan tabled an offer which the club accepted but an acceptable offer has now been made by Guangzhou R&FThe Belgium international has spent six-and-a-half-years with Tottenham and it is likely that this window will bring an end to his stay with the North London side as his contract expires at the end of the season.Mousa Dembele backs Gareth Bale’s shock China move Andrew Smyth – July 28, 2019 Mousa Dembele believes his former Tottenham team-mate Gareth Bale will find things “easy” in China and hopes the Real Madrid player makes the move.Dembele has not played for Spurs since November due to an ankle injury and has reportedly been keen on a move to China since the summer.It is still unclear who will replace Dembele at Spurs but the club have been monitoring the likes of Tanguy Ndombele, Abdoulaye Doucoure and Donny van de Beek.Tottenham hope to retain their top four position this season.