This suggests that we’ve reopened a critical period in mice, giving them the ability to learn social reward behaviors at a time when they are less inclined to engage in these behaviors.” These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases that are characterized by social impairments and of disorders that respond to social influence or are the result of social injury.” The effect was also only observed in mice that had been given the drug while they were with other mice and not in mice who received it while they were alone. The scientists say this suggests that the effectiveness of MDMA at reopening the critical period may depend on whether the mice are in a social setting when it is administered.Dölen says that opening the critical period for social reward learning may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric conditions Source:Oxytocin-dependent reopening of a social reward learning critical period with MDMA. Nature. 2019. By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Apr 8 2019Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Scientists at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine have found that the drug MDMA (ecstasy) can induce a neural response referred to as a “critical period,” where the brain is sensitive to learning the reward value of social behaviors. Hans Verburg | ShutterstockPrevious studies have shown that the use of MDMA in combination with psychotherapy can help people with post-traumatic stress disorder. The current findings, which were generated using a mouse model, may help to explain how this occurs; by strengthening the patient-therapist bond.Other research has demonstrated that critical periods streamline the development of language, vision and touch. Neuroscientist Gül Dölen and colleagues wanted to find out whether a critical period also exists for learning the reward value of social behaviors and whether or not it can be “re-opened” using MDMA.As reported in the journal Nature, mice were placed together for 24 hours in an enclosure containing one type of bedding and then placed by themselves for 24 hours in enclosures that contained a different type of bedding.The animals began to associate the different beddings with either isolation or companionship. The team then let the mice move freely between the enclosures and monitored how much time they spent in the different types. The more time spent in enclosures associated with companionship was taken as an indicator of more social reward learning.Dölen likens the phenomenon to people gathering around the water cooler and being conditioned to see the cooler as a place to interact with companions.During their experiments, the researchers found that the critical period for this type of learning occurs during puberty and wanes once the animal becomes a mature adult.To test whether the critical period could be reopened in mature mice, they administered a single dose of MDMA and waited 48 hours for the animals to clear the drug from their systems. They then observed how the animals explored the enclosures and interacted with other mice.After receiving MDMA, the majority of mice exhibited the same social behaviors as younger mice and formed positive associations between social interaction and the bedding – an effect that lasted for two weeks and was not seen in control mice who received saline injections.
Concept schematic. An omentum tissue is extracted from the patient and while the cells are separated from the matrix, the latter is processed into a personalized thermoresponsive hydrogel. The cells are reprogrammed to become pluripotent and are then differentiated to cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, followed by encapsulation within the hydrogel to generate the bioinks used for printing. The bioinks are then printed to engineer vascularized patches and complex cellularized structures. The resulting autologous engineered tissue can be transplanted back into the patient, to repair or replace injured/diseased organs with low risk of rejection. Image Credit: Nadav Noor Assaf Shapira Reuven Edri Idan Gal Lior Wertheim Tal Dvir Researchers explain that till date scientists have been able to print simple tissues using the 3D printing technology. These simple tissues were devoid of blood vessels and thus could not be used for much vascular tissues and organs such as the heart. Millions of people around the world suffer from heart ailments that may require heart transplants. This has been near impossible due to the shortage of donor hearts and also due to fear of mismatch of tissues of the donor and the recipient. This mismatch often leads to rejection of the donated heart by the recipient and thus can lead to failure of the transplant. This new study shows that if 3D printed hearts could be created from the patient’s own cells and transplanted, there may be a better chance of transplant success. Prof. Tal Dvir, lead researcher of the study from of TAU’s School of Molecular Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Sagol Center for Regenerative Biotechnology said in a statement, “This is the first time anyone anywhere has successfully engineered and printed an entire heart replete with cells, blood vessels, ventricles and chambers.” “This heart is made from human cells and patient-specific biological materials. In our process these materials serve as the bioinks, substances made of sugars and proteins that can be used for 3D printing of complex tissue models. People have managed to 3D-print the structure of a heart in the past, but not with cells or with blood vessels. Our results demonstrate the potential of our approach for engineering personalized tissue and organ replacement in the future,” he explained. Printing thick vascularized tissues. a) A top view of a lumen entrance (CD31; green) in a thick cardiac tissue (actinin; pink). b) A model of a tripod blood vessel within a thick engineered cardiac tissue (coordinates in mm), and c) the corresponding lumens in each indicated section of the printed structure. d) Tissue perfusion visualized from dual viewpoints. e–k) A printed small‐scaled, cellularized, human heart. e) The human heart CAD model. f,g) A printed heart within a support bath. h) After extraction, the left and right ventricles were injected with red and blue dyes, respectively, in order to demonstrate hollow chambers and the septum in‐between them. i) 3D confocal image of the printed heart (CMs in pink, ECs in orange). j,k) Cross‐sections of the heart immunostained against sarcomeric actinin (green). Scale bars: (a,c,h, i,j) = 1 mm, (g) = 0.5 cm, (k) = 50 µm. Related StoriesWeightlifting is better for the heart than cardioRepurposing a heart drug could increase survival rate of children with ependymomaImplanted device uses microcurrent to exercise heart muscle in cardiomyopathy patientsCo-authors of the study were Dr. Assaf Shapira of TAU’s Faculty of Life Sciences and Nadav Moor, a doctoral student. Professor Dvir said, “At this stage, our 3D heart is small, the size of a rabbit’s heart. But larger human hearts require the same technology.”The team took fatty tissue from the patient for their study. Then they separated the cellular from the acellular tissues. The cells were now made into pluripotent stem cells. This means they could now be moulded into becoming any cell of the body. Now a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules called the extracellular matrix (ECM) was created using collagen and glycoproteins. There was also a personalized hydrogel printing “ink”, explain the researchers. After mixing with the hydrogel, the cells could now be separated into cardiac or heart cells and endothelial or blood vessel cells. This helped create patches of heart complete with blood vessels. Using the same method whole of the heart was created with blood vessels. Prof. Dvir explained that the technique used native patient tissues and materials and this was crucial to the study.Prof. Dvir said, “The biocompatibility of engineered materials is crucial to eliminating the risk of implant rejection, which jeopardizes the success of such treatments. Ideally, the biomaterial should possess the same biochemical, mechanical and topographical properties of the patient’s own tissues. Here, we can report a simple approach to 3D-printed thick, vascularized and perfusable cardiac tissues that completely match the immunological, cellular, biochemical and anatomical properties of the patient.” As a next step they have make the 3D printed heart to actually behave like the heart for a successful transplant.Professor Dvir concluded, “We need to develop the printed heart further. The cells need to form a pumping ability; they can currently contract, but we need them to work together. Our hope is that we will succeed and prove our method’s efficacy and usefulness. Maybe, in ten years, there will be organ printers in the finest hospitals around the world, and these procedures will be conducted routinely.”Israel’s Foreign Ministry spokesman Emmanuel Nahshon said on Twitter, in reaction, “This is a major breakthrough and great news for world medicine.”Tel Aviv University Scientists Print First 3D Heart Using Patient’s Own Cells. For the first time ever Israeli scientists have created a vascularized human heart that fully matches the properties of a human patient.This is a major breakthrough and great news for world medicine 🇮🇱 pic.twitter.com/bdtTLfpp0Q— Emmanuel Nahshon (@EmmanuelNahshon) April 15, 2019 By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDApr 15 2019Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Researchers from Tel Aviv University have engineered the world’s first perfectly functioning, immunologically, cellular, biochemically and anatomically matched 3D printed heart. The heart is vascularised and supplied by the blood vessels of the patient and is created from the patient’s own cells. The results of this medical breakthrough study titled, “3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts,” were published in the latest issue of the journal Advanced Science this week. Imaging of the heart and patch modeling. CT image of a) a human heart and b) left ventricle coronary arteries. c) A model of oxygen concentration profile in an engineered patch. d) Replanning of the model showed better oxygen diffusion, sufficient to support cell viability.
Our study found that there were not clinically important differences in intermediate diabetes outcomes for patients with physicians, NPs, or PAs in both the usual and supplemental provider roles, providing additional evidence for the role of NPs and PAs as primary care providers.”Dr. George Jackson, senior author on the paper Source:Veterans Affairs Research Communications Jackson is a research health scientist with the Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT) at the Durham VA Medical Center in North Carolina. He is also an associate professor at Duke University.Several years ago, VA instituted Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACTs) primary care model. PACTs involve a team of care providers working together with veterans to focus on wellness and disease prevention in addition to treatment.Each PACT is led by either a physician, NP, or PA, and any one of those disciplines can also serve as a supplemental provider, supporting the main provider in the PACT. Within VA, about one-third of primary care visits are with PAs or NPs, rather than with physicians. While care teams led by PAs or NPs are becoming more and more common, questions remain about whether patients do as well with non-physicians leading their care.The researchers turned to a large patient population within VA who often have complex health care needs those with diabetes. The researchers looked at the electronic health records of more than 600,000 veterans with diabetes.Related StoriesDiet and physical exercise do not reduce risk of gestational diabetesNew biomaterial could encapsulate and protect implanted insulin-producing cellsStudy: Antidepressants reduce mortality by 35% in patients with diabetesA physician was the usual provider for 77% of these patients. The researchers did not find any statistically significant difference in quality of care based on the discipline of either the usual care provider or supplemental care providers. Patients whose usual care provider was a physician had similar health outcomes to those who mostly saw a PA or NP.Whether supplemental primary care providers were physicians or other providers also did not result in clinically important differences in patient outcomes.For example, compared to physician-only care, patients who saw only PAs in primary care had a 0.03% decrease in HbA1c (a measure of blood sugar, with lower numbers meaning better diabetes control). Patients who saw NPs only in primary care had a 0.06% decrease in HbA1c compared to those who saw physicians only. The differences were not large enough to be considered significant, meaning the results across those groups of patients were about equal.While the researchers acknowledge that some patients may still prefer that their care be overseen by a physician, other studies have shown that patients are generally satisfied with care from NPs or PAs. VA has been guided in part by such past findings in expanding the use of PAs and NPs as team leaders.The fact that PAs and NPs had similar results for quality of care without sharing care with a physician suggests that using these providers in primary care may improve the efficiency of health care, say the researchers. Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 10 2019Veterans Affairs patients with diabetes have similar health outcomes regardless of whether their primary provider is a physician, nurse practitioner (NP), or physician assistant (PA), according to a Durham VA Health Care System study.The results appear in the June 2019 edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants.
Tamil Nadu The BJP plans to actively engage itself in Tamil Nadu politics, said P Muralidhar Rao, the party’s National General Secretary.Speaking at the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry here, Rao said no development was possible without politics. Furthermore, one could not visualise development by remaining politics-neutral, he said.Rao conceded that Tamil Nadu was a “weakspot” for the BJP, adding that “Coimbatore is the “hotspot” for the party.The party, therefore, looked to Coimbatore as its roll-out space in the State, a district from where it could gain a foothold. “Conquering Everest was considered a difficult task, but with many climbers making it there, it should not be difficult for the BJP to conquer TN,” he said.Rao urged industrialists in the city to bring infrastructure-related issues to the notice of the party within the next fortnight so that it could be taken up with the respective Central ministries. “We want to ensure that something can be worked out: be it road projects and rail/ air connectivity for TN,” he added. SHARE July 04, 2018 1 COMMENT COMMENTS SHARE SHARE EMAIL Published on state politics
Maharashtra SHARE SHARE EMAIL January 17, 2019 It quashed the provision mandating dance bars to be 1 km away from religious places and educational institutions The Supreme Court on Thursday set aside certain provisions of a law imposing restrictions on the licensing and functioning of dance bars in Maharashtra.A bench headed by Justice A K Sikri quashed certain provisions of the Maharashtra Prohibition of Obscene Dance in Hotels, Restaurants and Bar Rooms and Protection of Dignity of Women (Working therein) Act, 2016. These include the mandatory installation of CCTVs and a partition between bar rooms and the dance floor.The top court, however, upheld some provisions. It allowed the payment of tips to performers but made it clear that showering of currency notes cannot be allowed.It quashed the provision mandating that dance bars in Maharashtra should be one kilometre away from religious places and educational institutions.It also upheld the condition fixing the timing of dance bars in the state from 6 pm to 11.30 pm. FROM THE VIEWSROOMShake a leg COMMENT SHARE Published on RELATED dance Representative image COMMENTS
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